Wadi hammeh 27 dating
Concepts of refuse behavior and site abandonment have been developed that show potential to distinguish degrees of mobility and sedentism among past human communities.
Whereas much of this work had been conducted in ethnographic situations or on recent sites, this study makes an initial attempt to apply this body of theory to the archaeological record of humanity's most fundamental settlement transition: from mobile hunter-gatherer to settled village farmer.
We conclude that human communities in the Natufian period had not yet tailored their indifferent household refuse disposal practices to the long-term requirements of sedentary living.
Subsequently, there occurs a punctuated gradient of change in the Levantine sequence, towards higher rates of secondary refuse disposal.
The situation during the Natufian occupation probably resembled the present Wadi Jirm springs and valley floor two kilometres to the south at the site of ancient Pella, where Melanopsis praemorsa colonies still cluster around the freshwater outlets.
Following the abandonment of the Natufian site after 12,000 years ago, a massive drop in base level occurred in Wadi al Hammeh, following the recession of Lake Lisan, giving rise to the various remnant outcrops in the craggy modern landscape.
12,000 years BP), which is combined with a diachronic overview of data from earlier and later sites, dating from 20,000 to 8000 years BP.The deposits are located at the northerly end of a remnant, flat- topped, interfluvial ridge known as the Plateau, carved out through deep incision by the perennial Wadi al-Hammeh and the parallel but ephemeral Wadi al-Himar.Numerous freshwater Melanopsis praemorsa (Marsh Snail) shells, scattered at this level throughout the Natufian deposits and final phases of aggraded silts, indicate the former existence of extensive nearby springheads feeding through a flat-bottomed valley.Since the phenomenon was first recognised in the 1930s, each Natufian base-camp investigated has yielded data displaying both general Natufian characteristics and distinctive, particular attributes of its own.This said, the site of Wadi Hammeh 27 stands out among all Natufian sites for a number of reasons: unique and impressive architectural features, good preservation of botanical material, unparalleled artefacts of basalt and bone, sickles comprising the hafts as well as the sickle pieces.
Elementary efforts at refuse disposal begin in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period (ca.