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This process is often termed the Austronesian expansion, which represents a complex demographic process of interaction between migrating Neolithic farmers and indigenous Mesolithic hunter–gatherer communities, a frequent phenomenon in world prehistory.However, our knowledge about the historical origin and spread of Austronesian-speaking peoples has been overwhelmingly from linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological studies (1).Here, we estimate recombination breakpoints in admixed genomes based on genome-wide SNP data and date the genetic admixture between populations of Asian vs. Analyses of two genome-wide datasets indicate an eastward progression of the Asian admixture signal in Eastern Indonesia beginning about 4,000–3,000 y ago, which is in excellent agreement with inferences based on Austronesian languages.The average rate of spread of Asian genes in Eastern Indonesia was about 0.9 km/y.As far as we understand, the authors do not challenge our conclusions but support our argument that camel caravans played a role in dispersal and genetic admixture.Few historical sources detail trade and pilgrim routes and the organization of caravans through the desert landscapes of the Arabian Peninsula, but obviously several north–south routes existed (3). (1), camel caravans were already used from ∼15th century BCE.Although the Austronesian expansion had a major impact on the languages of Island Southeast Asia, controversy still exists over the genetic impact of this expansion.The coexistence of both Asian and Papuan genetic ancestry in Eastern Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to address this issue.

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The genetic impact of the Austronesian expansion has been contested, with some studies claiming that the genetic ancestry of Island Southeast Asia mostly reflects pre-Austronesian migrations (2, 3) and that the Austronesian expansion did not involve large-scale population movements (4).

Eastern Indonesia (consisting of the Nusa Tenggaras and Moluccas) (Figs.

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